.

<< . >>

V.

, . :
, . , , , . , .
, , , . , , . (, ) . . , . ( ) , .

. . XVIII , . . , . , XXI .

16.

, , . , , , , , . ( , ) . , , , .
, , 1), , , . , . , , , , . , . .
. . , , , . , , - , - . . ( 2, .)
, , . , . , . , . , 484 . , .


, , . (, 1997 , ). , , , 1804 . 1810, 1822 . , , ( ). .
, , , , ; . , , . .
, . , , (, , ) (, , , ).
. , , , , , . XVI , , , . 1860 , , .
XIX . 1870 1880- , . , , . , . , 485 1963 .

.

  1. .
  2. , . .
  3. . , , . , , - .

. , , , , . , , , . . , , , - 2). , , , , . .
, , , . . , . -. , (. 18, , ). , , .
, . , ( ), , . :
, ,
,
.

.



.
, ,
, .
. .
, .
.

, ,
.3)

, , , . (. 7, ), ; , . , 1991 1200 . . , , , , 1981 1991 25%4).
, . , , . , , . , . , , . , , , 5).487

. , . . , , , . , , . . , .
1990- . , . , , . , - 1997 .
: . 1932 1980- 6,5%. , 1960- 1970- . 8%. , , , . .

( , , ), , . , , , . ( () , . , , . , , .) , . , , , , . ( ) , , . .

. 17. 1950 .
: Andrew Reed. The Developing World. London, Bell and Hyman, 1987. P. 16
( ), , 5 . , , , , . , . , 2000 300 6).
- . , . (, ) . , . , , 7).

( ) , . , , . : 489 . , , . , , , . , , .


12. ,



(1982, $ )


()


( 1000)

140

1877

40

132

570

2086

50

124

300

1881

52

108

690

2950

56

97

190

2133

47

107

260

1998

50

118

580

2296

49

87

13160

3652

74

12

11680

3381

74

10

140

1729

40

143

: Joseph Weatherby et al. The Other World: Issues and Politics in the Third World. New York: Macmillan, 1986. P. 43.

. , , . ( ). , , . .

. , , , . , , , . 700 8).
, , , . 490 1300 , , .
. . , . , , . , . , ; , .
, 1954 , , , . , , , . , . 1970- : . , , . , , , .
, , . . 1960- 28 . , . , , .

, , , . , . ' . , , , . (, 1985 1986 ), , . 491
. , , , . , , , , . , . , , 10 .
, , . , , . . , , . , . , , (, ), 9).
. , , , , , , , . , , . , . :
, , , , , , , , , 4000 , , 400 . , , , , , , , , , 492 . .10)
, . , , , , , , . , , , , 11).

, , . , , , . , , , , , , . , , . , , , , . , , , , ( , , ).
, , , . , , , , XIX . , , . - .
. 1926 . , , 12). 1920- , ( -).
. 493 ( , - ) 60 80% . , , . (). - , .
, , , . - . , . - , , . , . , , , , .

, , , . , , , . , , , . , , . , 13).
, , , 1980- 6 . , , , .
. , . , , . 1980- , , 10%.
, , . , , 494 , . , .
. , . , , .


1) Worsley P. The three worlds: culture and world development. London, 1984,

2) Weatherby J. et al. The Other World: Issues and Politics in the Third World. New York, 1987.

3)Bennett J. and S. George. The Hunger Machine. Cambridge, 1987. . 113.

4) Skins P. A New World Order Grasroots Movements for Global Change. London, 1992.

5) World Bank: World Development Report 1990. Oxford, 1990.

6) Kubalkova V. and A. Cruickshank. International Inequality. London, 1981.

7) Goldthorpe J. The Sociology of the Third World: Disparity and Development. Cambridge, 1984.

8) Benell }. and S. George. The Hunger Machine. Cambridge, 1987.

9) Brandt Commission. Common Crisis North-South; Cooperation for World Recovery. Cambridge, 1983. P. 123-133.

10) Hancock G. Lords of Poverty. London, 1989.

11) Ekins P. A New World Order: Grassroots Movements for Global Change. London, 1992.

12) Dinham B. and Co/in Hines. Agrobusiness in Africa. London, 1983.

13) Goodman D., RedclfftM. Refashioning Nature: Food, Ecology and Culture. London, 1991.

, ? , , : , .

. . , . 1900- , . , , . , , , . , , , 14).
, , . . , , . , .

, , . , , . , 495 , , . , , , , . , .

, . , 15). , , ( , ) , . , . , .
, . , ( , , ). , . , .
. , , , . , . , 16). , ( ), , .

, , . , , 496 17). ( ), , . , , : , , - , , . , , .
, , (, ), . , . . , , , .
, . . , . ( ), , , .
, , , . , .

? , . , , , , , , . , , . , .
, , , , . , , , , 18).
, , .
, , , . . , , , .
, . , . , , . .

. . . , , . , .
, . , . .
600 1/5 . 70 600 19).
: 1950 315 , . , , , .
- 200 , . , , 1960- . 1960 200 5 , 1983 498 .


13. (1983 )

-

( $ )

1

88561134

a

2


/

/

80550885

, ,

3

74581600

, ,

4

54607000

5

49194886

6

44454600

,

7

40180000

, , ,

8

40068000

9

35378000

10

()

27635000

1981; 1980.
: Joseph Weatherby et al. The Other Wond: Issues and Politics in the Third Worid. New York: Macmillan, 1986. P. 29.

( ), : . , , , . 1970 : , , 20).

. , , . , , . (, ) , . - 499 , , .
, . . . . , (), (), (), - () ( ).
. . . , , , -, . , , . , , . -, -, , .
, , . , , 21). , -, .
, . , . () , . , . . , , , . , . . , , , .

? -, , . , ( ), , 500 . , , . -, , , . -, . -, , , , . , () , . , , . , .
. , . ( ), , , .
, , . 1965 , 240 . 12000 . . , , , - .


14) Hobson John. Imperialism: a study. University of Michigan Press, 1965.

15) Furtado . The Economic Growth of Brazil: a survey from colonial to modem times. Westport, 1984.

16) Frank Andre. Capitalism and Under-development in Latin America. New York, 1969.

17) Wallerstein Immanuel. The Capitalist World System. Cambridge, 1979. 497

18) Blomstrom M. and Bjorn Hettne. Development theory in transition. The dependency debate and beyond: third world responses. London, 1984.

19) Dicken P. Global Shift. The internalisation of economic activity. London, 1992.

20) Dicken P. Global shift: industrial change in a Turbulent World. New York, 1986.

21) Perlmutter H. V. Forwards research on and development of nations, unions and firms as world institutions. In: H. Gunter. Transnational industrial relations. New York, 1972.

, 22). , , , , . , .
, , , , . 501

:

, , , . , , .
. . . 80% . , 1980- . , 1991 10%.
, , . ( ). 1960- , , -. , , , , , (. .). , , . . .
, , , . 1970-1980- , , . 1982 , (), , . , . , , . , .
10-15 . , (. 15, ) . . , , . , . , .


. 18. : .
: Peter Dicken. Global Shift. New York, 1986. P. 588

, , . . , 503 . , ( ) , , , , .
, , , , , ? , ? , . . , , , . , , , . , , .


22) Nyilas J. The world economy and its main development tendencies. The Hague, 1982.

. , , , . , , .
, . -, , , (, , ). -, , , , , , . -, , , . ( ). .

. , (, , ). , , , . , , , 504
, . , , , . . 23).
. , , . , , , . . , , , , . , , , , . , , . , , , ().
, . . 1950 . . , , , . , .
, . , , -. , . , , , . 1950- .
, , 150 -, . , , .

, (, ), . , , , . , 505 , , , .
, , , , , . , 1850 1200 , . . , . 1958 1000 . 1972 2100, 4000.

, . , , , . 1992 . 324 , 1990-, -, . , 2000 18 000 .
, , . , 580 . 15000 ( ).
, , , . 400 , 13000 .
. , , , . , , .

- , , . , , , , , .
506
, XVIII . : XX , - . 24).
, (. 2, ). , , . . , , , . . , . , . , , , , - , .
. , . , , . . . .
, , ( ), . , , . 50 , .
. , , . , , . , , , , - . , , , .

: , , , . 507
, . . . , , , . , , . - , , . ; , .
, - , , , . . , , , , , . , , , , 25).
, . . , , , . . . , . , - , . , , . - .
, , , . , , . , . , , , , , , .
. , . 2059 . , , , , , . 508

: ?

? , , , . , . , .
, . , , - , . , -, - , , . , , , , . , , 26).


23) Scott J. . President Wilson's Foreign Policy: Messages, Addresses, Papers. Oxford, 1918. P. 270.

24) Mckibben . The End of Nature. Hannondsworth, 1990.

25) Seymour J., Girardet H. Far From Paradise: The Story of the Human Impact on the Environment. London, 1990.

26) Good R., . Green. Political Theory. Cambridge, 1992.

. . , , 190 1960- 1200 1991 . . , . , .

, , - . . 1870 . , , . , , , . 1876 , , , . (). 509
, , . ( ) - , , .
, , , , , . , , 6400 114 , 48 27). , - , . 34 , , 28).
( ). . , , . , 1925 , , . , , , . , .
, 1961 . ;
, . , , . , - .

, ,

, , .

, , . . , . , , 40 , 29). , , , , , . 50 , , . , 90 .

. , , . , -

. , , , . , , . , . , , , , .

, , , . , , - , . (), , , , , , . , 511 , .
-, 1989 , . 350000 , , , . , , . . , .

, , . , . , .
. - 30). , , 31).
, . , . , --, --, , - . , . , , - 32). , . , 33).
, , , , .
512
, , . 1960- . , , . , , , , . . , . , , 34).
, 1970- . , 35). . , . , , , , . , - . , 36).
. , 1990 , , 20 . , . . , , , .
, . :
, , , . , , , . , . , . 2500 , , . 513 , , .37)

, ? , - ? , , , , . , , , , .
, , , , , , . , , . , , . , . , (. 11, ). . , .


27) Mattelart A. Multinational Corporation and the Control of Culture: The Ideological Apparatuses of Imperialism. Atlantic Highlands, 1979.

28) Smith A. Goodbye Gutenberg: The Newspaper Revolution of the 1980s. Oxford, 1980.

29) Smith Anthony. How Western Culture Dominates the World. Oxford, 1981.

30) Lyer P. Video Nigte in Katmandu. New York, 1989.

31) Sreberny-Mohammadi A. Media integration in the Third World. In: B. Gronbeck et al. Media, Consciousness and Culture. London, 1992,

32) Schiller H. Ml Communications and American Empire. New York, 1969.

33) Wells A, Picture Tube Imperialism? The Impact of US Television on Latin America. New York, 1972.

34) Katz Elihu et al. Broadcasting in the Third World: Promise and Performance. London, 1978.

35) MacBride S. et al. Many Voices, One World. London, 1988.

36) Kumar K. J., Biernatzki W. E. International news flows // Communication Research Trends. Vol. 10. 1992.

37) Smith Anthony. How Western Culture Dominates the World. Oxford, 1981.

  1. . . .
  2. , . . , ( ) .
  3. , , . , , 514 . , . , , .
  4. , . , , , .
  5. , , . , , , , . . , , .
  6. , , . .
  7. . . , , .
  8. , . . , , . , . , .
  9. , , . . - , . , , , . 515




𠠠
𠠠



()

񠠠






P. Dicken. Global Shift: The Internationalisation of Economic Activity. London, 1992. .
B. Kelly and M. London. The Four Little Dragons: A Journey to the Source of the Business Boom Along the Pacific. Rim. London, 1990. , , .
J. Larrain. Theories of Development: Capitalism, Colonialism and Dependency. Cambridge, 1989. , .
. Staub. The Roots of Evit. The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge,1989. , XX .

J. Toye. Dilemmas of Development: Renections on the Counter-Revolution in Development Theoryand Policy. Oxford, 1989. .


:
         
















sitemap:
. , , .