. :

.........................................................................................................3
I. ............................................................................................8
..................................................................8 ..................................................................................................................13
...................................................17
............................18
.........................................................................................23
.....................................................................26
..........................................................................................27
......................................31
II. ...........................................................................33
................................................................33
..................................................................................................43
....................................................................48
..................................................................52
2.1. ................................................................................................67
..................................................................67
.......................................................................................69
.................................................................................69
..........................................................................................70
................................................................72
.......................................................................76
2.2. ................................................................................................78
..................................................................78
.......................................................................................80
...........................................................................................82
.................................................................83
2.3. ........................................................................................85
..................................................................85
.........................................................87
....................................................................................90
..............................................................91
...............................92
III. ............................................................................................94
................................................................94
(, ).................................................................103
.......................................................111

..........................................................................116
...................................................................................................118 ..............................................................................................................124
............................................................125
............................................................................................126
........................................129
1. ( .. )..130
2.
...............................171
3.
......................................................180
4.
1900 2000 ...............................................................187
5.
,
( % )
.......................................190
............................................................192
....................................................................................................243

86.2
2 .. :
48
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